Overall plan, structure and functions of the C.V.S. Physiologic anatomy of the heart, mechanical events of cardiac cycle, cardiac output, cardiac performance including measurements, estimation and control. Electrocardiography (E.C.G). Consideration of the heart as a pump.  The Vascular system; Cross sectional area of different vascular groups, systolic, diastolic, pulse and mean pressures, exchange of fluids across the capillaries, venous and central venous pressures. Structural adaptation of the heart and blood vessels to their functions. Integration of C.V.S functions; central control centers, regulation of systemic blood pressure. General principles of hemodynamics, blood pressure regulation and measurement. Cardio-vascular adaptations in health and disease.  Circulation through special areas.  Vascular endothelium in cardiovascular control. Cardiovascular adjustment to exercise. Cardiovascular changes at birth. Membrane potentials, Nerve impulse and its physiological properties; Synaptic transmission.  Mechanism of force production; Physiologic properties of cardiac muscle; functional adaptations of muscles.  Functional organization of CNS, autonomic neurotransmitter and autonomic effects. Regional circulation (coronary, pulmonary, cerebral, cutaneous, skeletal, splanchnic, renal, fetal etc.); their measurement, special features and control. Peripheral circulation and lymphatic

General Principles of endocrinology: Introduction and basic principles of endocrinology, nature of hormones, synthesis, release and transport, measurement and Mechanisms of Hormone action; Control of endocrine glands (role of hypothalamus etc); The pituitary gland (functional anatomy, function, control and abnormalities of its secretions); Functional anatomy, functions, control and abnormalities of the secretions of the thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal gland.

Introduction and neuroendocrine relationship. Classification of hormones, Hypothalamo-Pituitary axis, Endocrine glands; normal, hypo – and hyper-functions. Thyroid and Parathyroid gland, Calcium Metabolism, Adrenal cortex, Pancreatic Hormones.  Other hormones of some clinical application.

Reproductive Physiology: Primary and accessory organs of sex. Puberty and secondary sexual characteristics. Functional anatomy of the Male and Female reproductive system: Male reproductive tract, the testis and spermatogenesis including Physiology of Coitus (male and female sexual responses); Female reproductive tract, cyclical changes in the matured non-menopausal female (physical, hormonal, metabolic etc,) - Menstrual Cycle. Functions of the Testis and Ovary, Puberty, Menopause. Physiology of pregnancy (fertilization, Placentation etc.).Parturition (involution etc.).Mammary gland and lactation (lactogenesis, milk ejection reflex etc). Contraception. Fertility and infertility. Gametogenic, Contraceptives, Assisted fertility techniques, Male and female sex hormones.  Cyclicity of hormone secretion in females.

Body fluids and Renal Physiology: Total body water and compartmentalization of fluid spaces in the body; Excretory Physiology and Nephrology: Definition and functions of the kidney. Physiologic anatomy of the kidney including ultra-structure & function. Elements of renal function: Glomerular filtration, renal blood flow, Tubular functions. Urine formation: - Dilute and concentrated Urine, ultrafiltration, Counter current mechanism, Clearance, diuresis, diuretics, micturition etc. and renal function tests, renal auto-regulation, ECF regulation, acid/base (electrolyte) balance, Renin-Angiotensin. Skin and integumentary system: Sweat and body temperature regulation. Buffer mechanism and pH regulation.

Gastrointestinal Physiology and Metabolism. Physiology of Digestive system:  Definition and functions, Physiologic anatomy (Organization of the gastrointestinal tract)  and Innervations and the autonomic control of the GIT, Mastication,  Deglution, Salivary gland, Digestion and food (carbohydrates, fats and proteins) absorption, Movement and Stomach emptying, Movements of the GIT, Vomiting and defecation, • Composition, mechanism of secretions, functions and control of gastrointestinal secretions (saliva, gastric juice, pancreatic juice etc.) and Metabolism. Liver and liver function. Pathophysiology of GIT. General aspects of nutrition and its regulation (feeding satiety, etc.).Body requirements- protein, vitamins and minerals, ATP as the common pathway of all energy. Energy utilization and balance.

General histology, the cell, epithelial, connective tissue, - loose and special (cartilage, bone).  Muscles – smooth, striated and cardiac.  Cardiovascular system blood vessels and pleura, bronchial tree, Gastro-intestinal system, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver and pancreas.  Practical classes on the topics.

Thorax. Thoracic wall, pleura, lungs, mediastinum and diaphragm. Abdomen, anterior abdominal wall and hernia –external genitalia –peritoneum, stomach and intestines, blood supply, Gut, Liver, Pancreas, spleen, Kidneys and Suprarenal. Regional anatomy, surface Anatomy Radiological Anatomy.

Introduction to Physiology and its place in Medicine (definition, scope, and career opportunities in physiology). The composite cell; Cell structure, functional damage and aging. Cell membrane Transport Mechanisms and Body Fluid Compartment. Membrane potentials and Excitable Tissues. Homeostasis. Mathematical and physical principles, quantitative measurements (mg%, Meq/L, molarity, osmolarity pH notations) and their applications.

Blood and Immune system: General characteristics, composition and functions of blood. Plasma (composition, plasma proteins and functions etc.).  Red blood cells (production, structure, function, osmotic fragility test, anemia, jaundice etc.). Erythropoiesis and Hemostasis. Haemostasis and its disorders. Anticoagulants and anticlotting mechanisms. Platelets (production, structure and functions).and Formation of Platelet plug. White Blood Cells (production, structure, functions), Blood groups including cross matching and transfusion reaction. Antigenicity, Immunity (Natural and acquired Immune mechanisms) and their disorders (allergic reactions & hypersensitivity) and Immunodeficiency diseases (AIDS, etc).